Preceding agency
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (1915–1958)
Type Space agency
Aeronautics research agency
Jurisdiction United States Federal Government
Headquarters Washington, DC
38°52′59″N 77°0′59″W
Bill Nelson
Deputy Administrator Pamela Melroy
Primary spaceports
John F. Kennedy Space CenterCape Canaveral Space Force StationVandenberg Space Force Base
Employees 17,960 (2022)
Annual budget Increase US$25.384 billion (2023)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA /ˈnæsə/) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for civil space programs, aeronautics research, and space exploration. Founded in 1958 as the successor to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), it focused on peaceful uses of space science and gave a distinctly civilian orientation to the US space effort. Since then, he has led most of America’s space explorations, including the Mercury program, the Gemini program, the 1972 Apollo moon landing mission from 1968, the Skylab space station, and the space shuttle. It currently supports the International Space Station, overseeing the development of the Orion spacecraft and space launch system for the manned Lunar Artemis mission, commercial crew spacecraft, and the planned Lunar Gateway space station.

NASA science works to better understand the Earth through Earth observation systems, advance solar physics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program [8], and develop advanced systems such as New Horizons and the Planetary Rover. It focuses on exploring celestial bodies throughout the solar system using robotic spacecraft. Like patience. Study of astrophysical topics such as the Big Bang with the James Webb Space Telescope, Great Observatories, and related programs. The Launch Services Program oversees launch operations and countdown management for unmanned launches.


Establishment of the Civil Aeronautics and Space Administration

Main article: Establishment of NASA and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

NASA’s roots trace back to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The United States was the birthplace of aviation, but by 1914 it found itself falling far behind Europe in aviation capabilities. Determined to restore American leadership in aviation, Congress established the National Aeronautics Administration in 1914. The Army Signal Corps established NACA in 1915 to promote aviation research and development. Over the next 40 years, NACA would conduct aeronautical research in support of the US Air Force, its predecessors the US Army, the US Navy, and civil aviation. After World War II, NACA became interested in the potential of guided missiles and supersonic aircraft, and developed and tested the Bell X-1 in a joint program with the United States Air Force. NACA’s interest in space grew out of the Unmanned Aircraft Research Division’s rocket program.

The Space Age began with the launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union, and the Space Race broke out. Despite NACA’s initial rocket program, responsibility for launching America’s first satellite fell to the Naval Research Laboratory’s Project Vanguard, and operational problems led the Army Ballistic Missile Agency to launch America’s first satellite on February 1, 1958. The satellite Explorer 1 was successfully launched.

Eisenhower The US government decided to split the US military and civilian space programs, which are jointly organized by the Department of Defense.

Advanced Research Project Agency. NASA was established on July 29, 1958 with the signing of the National Aeronautics and Space Act and began operations on October 1, 1958.

As the nation’s premier aviation agency, NACA formed the core of NASA’s new structure, absorbing 8,000 employees and its three major laboratories. NASA also took over the Naval Research Laboratory’s Project Vanguard, the Army’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Wernher von Braun’s Army Ballistic Missile Agency. This solidified NASA’s position as the nation’s civilian space leader, and established the Air Force as the military space leader.

First orbital flight and hypersonic flight

For details, see “Project Mercury”

Programs for manned spaceflight began in the US military before the establishment of NASA. The Air Force’s Man in Space Sooner Nest and the Army’s Project Adam formed the basis of Project Mercury, America’s plan to launch the first humans into space. NASA created a Space Task Group to manage the program, which would carry out suborbital flights with the Army’s Redstone rocket and orbital flights with the Air Force’s Atlas launch vehicle. NASA intended for the first astronauts to be civilians, but President Eisenhower ordered them to be chosen from the military. Mercury 7’s astronauts included three Air Force pilots, three Naval aviators, and one Marine Corps pilot.

On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard made a suborbital spaceflight aboard Freedom 7, becoming the first American to enter space. The flight took place less than a month after the Soviet Union’s Yuri Gagarin became the first person to make a fully orbital spaceflight. NASA’s first orbital spaceflight was conducted by John Glenn on February 20, 1962 on Friendship 7, and he completed three complete orbits before reentry. Due to autopilot failure, Glenn had to fly parts of his final two orbits manually. The sixth and final Mercury mission was flown by Gordon Cooper in May 1963, when he completed his 22 orbits in 34 hours on Faith 7. Project Mercury was a huge success, achieving its goals of orbiting humans in space, developing tracking and control systems, and identifying other problems associated with human spaceflight.

NASA has paid much attention to space, but it has not forgotten its aviation mission. Early aviation research sought to build on the X-1’s supersonic flight to create an aircraft capable of hypersonic flight. North American X-15 was a joint project between NASA and the United States. A hypersonic test vehicle became the first non-specialized spacecraft to enter space from the atmosphere in an Air Force program. The X-15 also served as a testbed for Apollo program technology and ramjet and scramjet engines.


Moon landing

Main article: Gemini and Apollo programs

As the Cold War escalated between the US and the Soviet Union, President John F. Kennedy ordered NASA to land Americans on the moon and bring them back.

This goal was accomplished by safely transporting it to Earth in the late 1960s and appointing James E. Webb as NASA administrator. On May 25, 1961, President Kennedy publicly proclaimed this goal in his “Urgent Needs of the Nation” speech to Congress, stating: Send humans to the moon and return them safely to Earth. No single space project from this period has been more impressive to humanity or more important to long-term space exploration. And nothing is that difficult or expensive to achieve.

Kennedy the following year he delivered the “We Choose to Go to the Moon” speech at Rice University on September 12, 1962.

Despite attacks by former President Dwight Eisenhower and 1964 presidential candidate Barry Goldwater on the goal of landing astronauts on the Moon, President Kennedy was able to protect the growing NASA budget, increasing 50% of it. was applied directly to manned spaceflight. At its peak, 5% of Americans were working on some aspect of the Apollo program.

To manage the Apollo program, NASA needed a more rigorous approach than the Mercury program. Following the Department of Defense’s program management approach that used redundant systems in the production of the first intercontinental ballistic missile, NASA asks the Air Force to assign Maj. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips to the space agency to lead the Apollo program. did. . Development of the Saturn V rocket was led by Wernher von Braun and his team at Marshall Space Flight Center and is based on the Army Ballistic Missile Agency’s original Saturn I. The Apollo spacecraft was designed and manufactured by North American Aviation, and the Apollo Lunar Module was designed and manufactured by Grumman.

To develop the spaceflight capabilities and equipment needed for a lunar mission, NASA initiated Project Gemini. The Gemini capsule, using a modified Air Force Titan II rocket, was able to carry two astronauts on its more than two-week flight. Gemini pioneered the use of fuel cells instead of traditional batteries and demonstrated spacewalks and rendezvous operations. NASA also needed more detailed information about the Moon’s geography and composition in preparation for landings by three unmanned spacecraft programs. The

The Ranger program was launched in the 1950s in response to Soviet lunar exploration, but was widely considered a failure. The Lunar Orbiter program was a great success as it mapped the Earth’s surface, measured selenography, detected meteorites, and measured radiation levels in preparation for the Apollo landings. The Surveyor program included unmanned landings and launches on the moon, as well as surface and regolith observations. Despite being set back by the Apollo 1 fire that killed three astronauts, the program continued.

Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first manned spaceflight to reach the moon. The crew completed 10 orbits of the Moon on December 24 and 25, 1968, and then safely returned to Earth. The three Apollo 8 astronauts, Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders, were the first to see the Earth as a globe in space, the first to witness Earthrise, and the first to see Earth rise. He was also the first person to see the moon photographed on the far side and manually.

Apollo 11 made the first moon landing. Apollo 11, commanded by Neil Armstrong and astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins, was one of the most important missions in NASA’s history, as the Soviet Union capitulated to increase its moon ambitions. , marking the end of the space race. As the first man to set foot on the moon, Neil Armstrong said the now famous words:

That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for man.

NASA conducted a total of six moon landings as part of the Apollo program, with Apollo 17 completing the program in its 1972 year.

Wernher von Braun had been advocating for NASA to develop a space station since the agency’s founding. In 1973, after the Apollo moon mission, NASA launched the first space station, Skylab, on the final launch of the Saturn V. Skylab reused a significant portion of the previous Apollo and Saturn hardware, including the third stage. The Saturn V served as the space station’s primary module. Skylab was damaged during launch, requiring an initial crew spacewalk to make it habitable and operational. Skylab flew just nine missions before being retired in 1974 and deorbited in 1979, two years before the Space Shuttle’s launch and orbit increase.

The 1975 Apollo-Soyuz mission was the first-ever international spaceflight and an important diplomatic achievement between the Cold War adversaries. In 1975, the American Apollo spacecraft crashed into a Soviet Soyuz capsule. It was also the last flight of the Apollo capsule.

Interplanetary Exploration and Space Exploration

In the 1960s, NASA began a space exploration and interplanetary exploration program. The Mariner program was its flagship program and launched probes to Venus, Mars, and Mercury in the 1960s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is NASA’s primary center for interplanetary robotics research and has made important discoveries about the inner planets. Despite these successes, Congress was reluctant to fund further interplanetary exploration, and NASA Administrator James Webb canceled all future interplanetary exploration to focus resources on the Apollo program. .

After the Apollo program ended, NASA resumed launching interplanetary probes and expanded its space exploration program. The first planet marked for exploration was Venus, which has many similar properties to Earth. Venus was first visited by the American Mariner 2 spacecraft and was found to be a hot and inhospitable planet. Follow-up missions included the Pioneer Venus project in the 1970s and Magellan, which conducted radar mapping of the surface of Venus in the 1980s and 1990s. A future mission was a flyby of Venus en route to other destinations in the solar system.

Mars has long fascinated NASA because it is suspected that it may harbor life. Mariner 5 was the first NASA spacecraft to fly near Mars, followed by Mariner 6 and Mariner 7. Mariner 9 was the first orbital mission to Mars. The Viking program, launched in 1975, consisted of two Mars landings in 1976. Subsequent missions did not begin until 1996, when Mars’ Global Surveyor orbiter and Mars’ Pathfinder deployed the first Mars rover, Sojourner. In the early 2000s, the 2001 Mars Odyssey probe reached Mars, and in 2004, the Split and Opportunity probes landed on Mars. This was followed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2005 and the Phoenix Mars Lander in 2007. When Curiosity landed in 2012, radiation levels on Mars were found to be comparable to those on the International Space Station, greatly increasing the potential for human exploration and observing chemical components important for the emergence of life. It was done. In 2013, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission observed Mars’ upper atmosphere and space environment, and in 2018, the Interior Survey using Seismic, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) investigated the interior. The 2021 Perseverance spacecraft carried a helicopter called Ingenuity, the first extraplanetary aircraft.

NASA also began a mission to Mercury in 2004, with the MESSENGER spacecraft demonstrating the first use of a solar sail. In the early 1960s, NASA also launched probes to the outer solar system. Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to fly past Jupiter, and Pioneer 11 was the first spacecraft to photograph Jupiter from close up. Both probes were the first objects to leave the solar system. The Voyager mission began in 1977, completing flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus before leaving the solar system. The Galileo spacecraft, deployed from Space Shuttle Flight STS-34, was the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. She discovered evidence of Europa’s underground ocean and observed that the moon may contain ice or liquid water. Cassini-Huygens, a joint mission between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, has been sent to Saturn’s moon Titan. Titan, along with Mars and Europa, is the only celestial body in the solar system other than Earth that is thought to be able to host Saturn. life. . Cassini discovered three new moons of Saturn, and the Huygens probe entered Titan’s atmosphere. The mission discovered evidence of liquid hydrocarbon lakes on Titan and a subsurface ocean on the moon Enceladus that could potentially support life. The New Horizons mission, finally launched in 2006, became the first spacecraft to visit Pluto and the Kuiper belt.

In addition to the interplanetary probe, NASA has a long history of launching space telescopes. Launched in the 1960s, the Orbiting Observatory was NASA’s first orbiting telescope, capable of observations in ultraviolet, gamma-ray, X-ray, and infrared wavelengths. NASA has launched an orbiting geophysical observatory to not only look up, but also observe the Earth and its interactions with the Sun. The Uhuru satellite was the first all-X-ray telescope, mapping 85% of the sky and discovering numerous black holes.

The Great Observatory program, launched in the 1990s and early 2000s, is one of NASA’s most powerful telescopes. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 on Discovery’s STS-31 and was able to observe galaxies 15 light years away. If NASA hadn’t taken five Space Shuttle maintenance flights to use computer improvements to patch up defects and replace damaged parts, the telescope’s mirrors would have been seriously flawed and the program would have failed. may have fallen into. The Compton Gamma-ray Observatory was launched on STS-37 from Atlantis in 1991. They discovered a possible source of antimatter at the center of the Milky Way, and observed that most gamma-ray bursts occur outside the Milky Way. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched from Columbia in 1999 on its STS-93 and observed black holes, quasars, supernovae, and dark matter. This provided important observations about the Sagittarius A* black hole at the center of the Milky Way and the separation of dark matter and normal matter in galactic collisions. Finally, the Spitzer Space Telescope is an infrared telescope and the last large observatory launched on a Delta II rocket in 2003. They orbited the sun, followed the Earth, and discovered the existence of brown dwarfs. Other telescopes, such as the

Cosmic Background Probe and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, provided evidence for the Big Bang. The James Webb Space Telescope, named after his NASA administrator who led the Apollo program, is an infrared observatory launched in 2021. The James Webb Space Telescope is the direct successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, which was designed to observe the formation of the first galaxies. Other space telescopes include the Kepler space telescope, which was launched in 2009 to identify planets orbiting stars outside our solar system that could be Earth and harbor life. The first exoplanet identified by the Kepler Space Telescope was Kepler-22b, which orbited within its star’s habitable zone.

NASA also launched a number of different satellites to study Earth, including the first weather satellite, the Television Infrared Observing Satellite (TIROS), in 1960. NASA and the National Weather Service collaborated on the future TIROS and second-generation Nimbus weather satellite programs. The agency also collaborated with the Environmental Science Service on a series of weather satellites, and the agency launched an experimental applied technology satellite into geostationary orbit. NASA’s first Earth observation satellite, Landsat, was launched in 1972. This led to the collaboration between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to develop a geostationary operational environmental satellite, which led to the discovery of ozone layer depletion.

Space Shuttle

For more information, see “Space Shuttle

“NASA has been pursuing spaceplanes since the 1960s, combining two government air and space missions. NASA considered the spaceplane to be part of a larger program to provide routine and economic logistics for a space station in Earth orbit that serves as a hub for missions to the Moon and Mars. Reusable launch vehicles eliminate the need for expensive, disposable launch vehicles like the Saturn V.

. In 1969, NASA designated Johnson Space Center as the primary center for the design, engineering, and manufacturing of Space Shuttle orbiters, with Marshall Space Flight Center leading launch system development. His NASA series of lifting body aircraft culminates in the NASA-US Joint Aircraft Series. The Air Force’s Martin Marietta X-24 was directly involved in the development of his Space Shuttle and future hypersonic flying aircraft. Formal development of the Space Shuttle began in 1972, with Rockwell International designing the orbiter and engines, and Martin Marietta designing the external fuel tanks and engines. Morton Thiokol, a solid rocket booster. NASA acquired six of its orbiting satellites: Enterprise, Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor

. The Space Shuttle program also allowed NASA to make dramatic changes to its astronaut corps. Almost all astronauts to date have been Air Force or Navy test pilots, but the space shuttle allowed NASA to recruit more non-military science and engineering professionals. A prime example is Sally Ride, the first American woman to fly into space on STS-7. It also allowed NASA to accept exchange astronauts from US allies and partners for the first time.

The first Space Shuttle flight occurred in 1981 when Columbia took off on the STS-1 mission, intended to serve as a flight test for a new spaceplane. NASA intended the space shuttle to replace single-use launch systems such as the Air Force’s Atlas, Delta, and Titan and the European Space Agency’s Ariane. The Space Shuttle’s SpaceLab payloads, developed by the European Space Agency, have dramatically increased the scientific capabilities of shuttle missions compared to what NASA has been able to achieve to date.

NASA launched its first commercial satellite with her STS-5 mission, and in 1984, when Challenger captured and repaired a defective Solar Maximum Mission satellite, the STS-41-C mission became the world’s first An in-orbit satellite maintenance mission was carried out . It was also possible to send defective satellites back to Earth, as was the case with the Palapa B2 and Westar 6 satellites. After returning to Earth, the satellite was repaired and relaunched.

With NASA outsourcing launch services to private companies, the Space Shuttle ushered in a new era of space travel, but was criticized for not being as reusable and cost-effective as advertised. In 1986, the Challenger accident on the STS-51L mission resulted in the loss of the spacecraft and all seven astronauts at launch, and the 44 companies working with NASA that had stationing contracts with the entire Space Shuttle fleet. commercial enterprises were grounded for 36 months. Their satellites were forced to revert to disposable launch vehicles. When the Space Shuttle returned to flight with its STS-26 mission, significant changes were made to improve reliability and safety.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation and the United States launched the Shuttle Mir program. Russia’s first astronauts flew on the STS-60 mission in 1994, and Discovery rendezvoused with Russia’s Mir as part of the STS-63 mission, but did not dock. This was followed by her STS-71 mission to Atlantis, which completed the Space Shuttle’s original planned mission to dock with the space station and transport supplies and personnel. The Shuttle Mir program continued until his 1998 year, when a series of in-orbit accidents at the space station ended the program.

In 2003, Columbia was lost during atmospheric reentry during her STS-107 mission, resulting in the loss of the second space shuttle and the resulting loss of the spacecraft and all seven of her astronauts. I got it. This accident marked the beginning of the end for the President’s space shuttle program. President George W. Bush ordered the Space Shuttle to be retired after the International Space Station was completed. The Space Shuttle returned to flight in 2006 and flew several additional missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, but was retired in 2011 with the completion of the STS-135 resupply mission to the International Space Station.

Space station

Main article: Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station

NASA never gave up on the idea of ​​​​a space station, even after Skylab reentry in 1979. The agency began urging politicians to support building the space station as soon as the space shuttle began flying, touting it as an orbiting laboratory, repair station, and launch pads for missions to the Moon and Mars. NASA found a strong supporter in President Ronald Reagan, who declared in a 1984 speech: We can follow our dreams to distant stars and live and work in space for peaceful, economic and scientific benefits. Tonight, I am directing NASA to develop a permanently manned space station and make it a reality within 10 years.

In 1985, NASA proposed the Freedom Space Station. This was intended as an international program by both NASA and President Reagan. While this increased the legitimacy of the program, there were concerns within NASA that an international component would weaken its authority within the project, as NASA was not willing to work with domestic or international partners on an equal footing. There were also concerns about sharing sensitive space technology with Europe, which could reduce America’s technological advantage. Ultimately, an international agreement was signed in 1985 with 13 countries, including European Space Agency member states, Canada, and Japan, to develop a space station freedom program.

Despite being the first international space program, the Freedom Space Station was controversial, with much of the debate focusing on cost. It underwent several redesigns in the early 1990s to reduce costs, and many features were lost. Despite calls for Congress to end the program, it continued, primarily because by 1992 it had created 75,000 jobs in 39 states. By 1993, President Bill Clinton had slashed NASA’s budget to drastically cut costs, avoid job losses in the aerospace industry, and try to attract Russians.

In 1993, the Clinton administration announced that the Freedom Space Station would become the International Space Station under an agreement with the Russian Federation. This allowed Russia to maintain its space program through injections of American currency, thereby maintaining its position as one of the top two space programs. Although the United States built and launched most of the International Space Station, Russia, Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agency contributed to all components. Although NASA claimed that costs would remain within the $17.4 budget, costs continued to rise and NASA had to shift funding from other programs to keep the International Space Station solvent. In the end, the total cost of the base was $150 billion, of which the United States paid two-thirds. After the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, NASA was forced to rely on Russian Soyuz launches for its astronauts, and the Space Shuttle was decommissioned in 2011. The shuttle hastened the completion of the station.

In the 1980s, shortly after the Space Shuttle’s first flight, NASA began a joint program with the Department of Defense to develop the Rockwell X-30 National Aerospace Vehicle. NASA realized that while the Space Shuttle delivered incredible technological achievements, it could not fulfill all of its promises. The X-30 was designed as a single-stage orbital spaceplane and had both civilian and military applications. With the end of the Cold War, the X-30 was phased out in 1992 before reaching flight-ready status.

Liberating Commercial Space and Returning to the Moon

Main Article: Commercial Crew Program and Artemis Program

After the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003, President Bush aimed to smoothly replace the Space Shuttle and shift space exploration to space. Launched the Constellation Program to expand beyond exploration. low earth orbit. Constellation was intended to return astronauts to the moon using a large amount of former space shuttle equipment. The program was canceled by the Obama administration, and former astronauts Neil Armstrong, Gene Cernan, and Jim Lovell sent a letter to President Barack Obama stating that if the US did not benefit, the US He warned that there was a risk of a second plan . New manned spaceflight capabilities, third-class space energy.

SpaceX Crew-2 docks at the International Space Station.

Even during the Reagan administration, there were calls for greater private sector involvement in space exploration, rather than having NASA do everything in-house. In the 1990s, NASA and Lockheed Martin signed an agreement to develop the Lockheed Martin X-33 and VentureStar spaceplanes to replace the Space Shuttle. Due to technical problems, this spacecraft was decommissioned in 2001. Nevertheless, it was the first time that a commercial space company invested a significant portion of its resources directly into spacecraft development. The advent of space travel has forced NASA to question the assumption that only governments carry people into space. the first space traveler Dennis Tito, an American investment manager and former aerospace engineer, has signed a contract with Russia to fly to the International Space Station for four days, despite opposition from NASA.

Proponents of this new commercial approach to NASA include former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, who wants to return NASA to its roots as a research and development agency and to encourage commercial companies to develop space systems. He pointed out that it will be put into actual use. If companies could take over orbital operations, NASA could focus its efforts on space exploration and returning humans to the moon and Mars. Following this approach, NASA’s Commercial Crew Program began contracting cargo transportation to the International Space Station and flew its first operational contract mission with SpaceX Crew-1. For the first time since the Space Shuttle was retired, NASA was able to transport its own astronauts from the United States on an American spacecraft, ending a decade of dependence on Russia.

In 2019, NASA announced the Artemis mission to return to the moon and establish permanent human habitation there. This was combined with the Artemis Agreement with partner countries to establish rules and norms of conduct for the commercialization of lunar space.

Active Programs

Human Spaceflight

International Space Station (1993–present)

Further Information: International Space Station


The International Space Station (ISS) consists of NASA’s Space Station Freedom Project and the Soviet Union’s and Russia’s Mir 2 Station, It is a combination of Europe’s Columbus. station and Japan’s “Kibo” laboratory module. NASA originally planned to develop Freedom independently in the 1980s, but US budget constraints forced these projects to be managed by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 1993. to be integrated into a single multinational program . Agency (JAXA), European Space Agency (ESA), and Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The station consists of pressurized modules, external supports, solar arrays, and other components manufactured in various factories around the world and launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and the US Space Shuttle. In-orbit assembly began in 1998, the US orbital segment was completed in 2009, and the Russian orbital segment was completed in 2010, although there is debate as to whether new modules should be added to this segment. Ownership and use of the space station is governed by intergovernmental treaties and agreements, which divide the station into two areas, with Russia retaining full ownership of its orbital portion (excluding Zarya). , allowing the US orbital portion to be divided between them. Another international partner.

Long-term missions to the ISS are called ISS expeditions. Expedition crews typically spend about six months on the ISS. The expedition’s original crew size was three, but this was temporarily reduced to two after the Columbia disaster. Since May 2009, the expedition’s crew has numbered six people. Once the commercial crew program becomes operational, crew size is expected to increase to the ISS’ design number of seven. The ISS has been occupied continuously for the past 23 years and 122 days, exceeding Mir’s previous record. Astronauts and astronauts from 15 countries participated.

The station will be visible to the naked eye from Earth and will be the largest artificial satellite in Earth orbit by 2024, with more mass and volume than any previous space station. The Russian spacecraft Soyuz and the American Dragon are being used to transport astronauts to and from the ISS. Several unmanned cargo spacecraft serve the ISS. These are the Russian Progress spacecraft, which has been doing this since 2000, the European automatic transport vehicle (ATV) from 2008, the Japanese H-II transport vehicle (HTV) from 2009, and the (unmanned) Dragon from 2012, and an American spaceship. Spacecraft Cygnus from 2013. The Space Shuttle was also used for cargo transport until its retirement, frequently changing expedition crews, but it could not remain docked for the duration of its stay. From the shuttle’s retirement in 2011 until the start of manned Dragon flights in 2020, American astronauts used Soyuz exclusively to transport crews to and from the ISS. The maximum number of people on the ISS was 13 people. This occurred three times during the Shuttle’s late assembly mission to the ISS. The

The ISS program is expected to continue until 2030. The space station will then be decommissioned and destroyed in a controlled orbit.

Commercial Supply Service (2008 – Present)

More information: Commercial Supply Service


Commercial Supply Service Approaching the International Space Station Mission

Commercial Supply Service (CRS) delivers cargo and supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) A contract solution for ). on a commercial basis. [35] NASA awarded the first CRS contract in 2008, awarding SpaceX $1.6 billion for 12 Dragon cargo flights and Orbital Sciences $1.9 billion for eight Cygnus flights. , which covered deliveries up to 2016. Both companies have developed or created launch vehicle products to support their solutions (Falcon 9 for SpaceX and Antares for Orbital).

SpaceX flew its first operational resupply mission (SpaceX CRS-1) in 2012. Orbital Sciences followed in 2014 (Cygnus CRS Orb-1). In 2015, NASA expanded its CRS-1 to 20 SpaceX flights and 12 Orbital ATK flights.

The second phase of the contract (known as CRS-2) was requested in 2014. In January 2016, a cargo flight contract was signed with Orbital ATK Cygnus, Sierra Nevada Dream Chaser, and SpaceX Dragon 2, starting in 2019 and scheduled to continue until 2024. In March 2022, NASA awarded six additional CRS-2 missions to SpaceX and Northrop Grumman (formerly Orbital).

Northrop Grumman successfully delivered Cygnus NG-17 to her ISS in February 2022. In July 2022, SpaceX launched its 25th CRS flight (SpaceX CRS-25), successfully delivering cargo to the ISS. In late 2022, Sierra Nevada continued to assemble the Dream Chaser CRS solution. Current estimates assume that the first launch will take place at the beginning of his 2023 year.

Commercial Crew Program (2011–Present)

More Information: Commercial Crew Program The

Commercial Crew Program (CCP) provides commercial crew transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS) on behalf of NASA and provides expeditionary Carry out crew rotation between the International Space Station program. American space manufacturer SpaceX began offering services using its Crew Dragon spacecraft in 2020, and NASA plans to add Boeings after 2024 when the Boeing Starliner spacecraft enters service. . NASA has contracted six operational missions from Boeing and 14 operational missions from SpaceX to ensure sufficient supply support for the ISS through 2030.

Spacecraft is owned and operated by Provider. Crew transportation is provided to NASA as a commercial service. Each mission will send up to four astronauts to her ISS, but she can optionally accept a fifth passenger. For missions lasting approximately six months, operational flights occur approximately every six months. The spacecraft remains docked to the ISS throughout the mission, and missions typically overlap by at least a few days. From the retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011 to its first Chinese Communist Party mission in 2020, NASA used the Soyuz program to transport astronauts to the ISS.

The Crew Dragon spacecraft is launched into space on a Falcon 9 Block 5 launch vehicle, and the capsule returns to Earth through the ocean spray near Florida. The program’s first operational mission, SpaceX Crew-1, launched on November 16, 2020. After the last test flight with the Atlas V N22 rocket, operational flights of the Boeing Starliner have now begun. Instead of water cannons, Starliner capsules equipped with airbags will land at one of four designated locations in the western United States.

Artemis (2017–present)

More information: Artemis Program

Since 2017, NASA’s human spaceflight program is the Artemis program, which includes support from US commercial space companies and international partners such as ESA, JAXA, and CSA. Includes assistance. The goal of the program is to land the “first woman and next man” on the moon’s south polar region by 2025. Artemis is the first step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the moon, helping companies build a lunar economy, and ultimately laying the foundations for sending humans to Mars. Dew.

The Orion crew rover was postponed from the aborted Artemis constellation program. Artemis 1 was the first unmanned launch of the SLS Space Launch System. It would also send the Orion spacecraft into a distant retrograde orbit.

NASA’s next major space program is the construction of the Lunar Gateway, a small space station in lunar orbit. The space station will be designed primarily for non-continuous human habitation. The first preparatory step for a return to human lunar exploration missions is Artemis 2, which includes the Orion crew module carrying the SLS, and is scheduled to launch in 2025. The mission will be a 10-day mission with a crew of four participating in a brief lunar flight. Construction of the Gateway will begin with the planned Artemis 3, which will carry its four-man crew into lunar orbit along with Gateway’s first module. This mission will last up to 30 days. NASA plans to build complete space habitats such as Lunar Gateway and Nautilus-X as part of its Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program. In 2017, NASA was directed by Congress’s NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017 to place humans in orbit around Mars (or on the surface of Mars) by the 2030s.

To support the Artemis mission, NASA provided funding to private companies to land robotic spacecraft on the moon’s surface as part of a program called Commercial Lunar Payload Services. Since March 2022, NASA has signed contracts for robotic moon rovers with companies including Intuitive Machines, Firefly Space Systems, and Astrobotic.

On April 16, 2021, NASA announced that the SpaceX lunar spacecraft has been selected as the human landing system. The agency’s Space Launch System rocket carries four astronauts aboard the Orion spacecraft for a multi-day journey to lunar orbit, where they transfer to a SpaceX spacecraft for the journey to the moon’s surface. This is the final step.

In November 2021, it was announced that the goal of landing astronauts on the moon by 2024 will be pushed back to 2025 at the earliest due to various factors. Artemis 1 was launched on November 16, 2022, and safely returned to Earth on December 11, 2022. As of June 2022, NASA plans to launch Artemis 2 in May 2024 and Artemis 3 in December 2025. Other Artemis missions: Artemis 4 and Artemis 5 are scheduled to launch after 2025.

Commercial LEO Development (2021 – Present) The

Commercial Low Earth Orbit Destination Program supports the development of a commercial space station, or “International Space Station,” that NASA hopes to begin operating by the end of this decade. It’s an initiative. Exchange. The three companies chosen are Blue Origin (and others) with an orbital leaf station concept, Nanoracks (and others) with a Starlab space station concept, and Northrop Grumman with a station concept based on its HALO module for the Gateway station.

Robotic Exploration

For more information: List of NASA Missions and List of Unmanned NASA Missions

Videos of many unmanned missions exploring the outer reaches of space

NASA has conducted many unmanned robotic spaceflight programs throughout its history. More than 1,000 unmanned missions have been developed to explore the Earth and the solar system.

Mission Selection Process

NASA has implemented a mission development framework for planning, selecting, developing, and executing robotic missions. This framework is designed to enable competitive selection of missions, including mission candidates selected by principal investigators and their teams from NASA, a wide range of US government research and development stakeholders, and industry. Define cost, schedule, and technical risk parameters. The mission development structure is defined by four overarching programs.

Explorer Program

For More Information: The Explorer Program

Explorer program has its origins in the early days of the United States space program. In its current form, the program consists of a system of its three classes: Small Scale Explorer (SMEX), Medium Scale Explorer (MIDEX), and University Class Explorer (UNEX) missions. The NASA Explorer Program Office provides frequent flight opportunities for innovative, moderate-cost solutions in the scientific fields of heliophysics and astrophysics. Small spacecraft missions must limit the cost to NASA to less than $150 million (2022 USD). For intermediate-range exploration missions, NASA’s cost limit was typically $350 million. The Explorer program office is based at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.

Discovery Program

More information: Discovery Program

NASA Discovery Program develops and delivers robotic spacecraft solutions in the field of planetary science. Discovery allows scientists and engineers to form teams to provide solutions to a defined set of goals and compete to deliver those solutions against other candidate programs. Cost limits vary, but a recent mission selection process was conducted with NASA’s cost limit at $500 million. The Planetary Mission Program Office is based at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and manages both Discovery and New Frontier missions. This office is part of the Scientific Mission Directorate.

NASA Administrator Bill Nelson said on June 2, 2021, that the DAVINCI+ and VERITAS missions could launch to Venus in the late 2020s, after opposing competing proposals for missions to Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io and Neptune’s large moon Triton. announced that he had been selected. He was also selected as a finalist in the Discovery program. The cost of each mission is estimated at $500 million. Launch is scheduled between 2028 and 2030. Launch contracts are concluded late in the development of each mission.

New Frontier Program

For more information: New Frontier Program

The New Frontier Program focuses on specific solar system exploration goals identified as top priorities by the planetary science community. Primary objectives include exploration of the solar system using medium spacecraft missions to perform advanced scientific investigations. New Frontiers is based on the Discovery program’s development approach, but includes higher cost caps and schedule periods than those available with Discovery. Cost limits vary depending on the occasion. Recent missions have been awarded based on a set cap of $1 billion. Because of the expected higher cost caps and longer mission durations, new program opportunities will be infrequent, typically once every few years. OSIRIS-REx and New Horizons are examples of New Frontiers missions.

NASA has determined that the next opportunity to submit proposals for the fifth round of New Frontier missions will be no later than the fall of 2024. NASA’s New Frontiers Program missions address specific solar system exploration goals identified as top priorities by the planetary science community. NASA’s strategy to better understand our solar system is to explore it with medium-sized spacecraft missions that conduct research of high scientific relevance.

Large Strategic Missions

More information: Large Strategic Science Missions

Large strategic missions (formerly known as flagship missions) are typically developed and managed by large teams across multiple NASA centers. This is a strategic mission. Individual missions become programs rather than parts of larger initiatives (see Discovery, New Frontiers, etc.). The James Webb Space Telescope is a strategic mission that has been in development for more than 20 years. Strategic missions are developed on an ad hoc basis as program goals and priorities are established. If a mission like Voyager were developed today, it would be a strategic mission. Three of the major observatories were strategic missions (Chandra X-ray Observatory, Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope). Europa Clipper is the next major strategic mission in NASA’s development.

Planetary Science Mission

NASA has continued to play an important role in solar system exploration for decades. Ongoing missions target more than five extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system – the Moon (Lunar Reconnaissance Probe), Mars (Perseverance Rover), Jupiter (Juno), asteroid Bennu (OSIRIS-REx), and the Kuiper Belt. Pursuing current scientific goals related to astronomical objects (New Horizons). ). The expanded Juno mission will include flybys of Ganymede in 2021, Europa in 2022, and multiple flybys of Jupiter’s moon Io in 2023 and 2024. Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will continue to provide scientific data to Earth as they continue their journey into interstellar space.

On November 26, 2011, NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission successfully launched to Mars. The Curiosity rover successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012, and then began searching for evidence of past or present life on Mars.

In September 2014, NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft, part of the Mars Scout program, successfully entered Mars orbit and will continue exploring Mars’ atmosphere from October 2022. NASA’s ongoing Mars exploration includes detailed exploration of Mars by the Perseverance rover and InSight. NASA’s

Europa Clipper, scheduled to launch in October 2024, will study Galileo’s moon Europa through a series of flybys in orbit around Jupiter. Dragonfly plans to send a mobile robotic rotorcraft to Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. As of May 2021, Dragonfly is scheduled to launch in June 2027.

Astrophysics Missions

The Astrophysics Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate manages NASA’s Astrophysics Science Portfolio. NASA has invested significant resources in the development, delivery, and operation of many different types of space telescopes. These telescopes have created the ability to study the universe across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Large observatories launched in the 1980s and 1990s have provided physicists on Earth with a wealth of observations to study. Its first Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in 1990 and continues to function, thanks in part to previous Space Shuttle maintenance missions. Other large-scale observatories still in operation include the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), launched by his STS-93 in July 1999. He is currently on a 64-hour elliptical orbit to study further visible X-ray sources not available from ground-based observatories.

Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) is a space observatory designed to improve our understanding of X-ray production in objects such as neutron stars and pulsar wind nebulae, as well as stars and supermassive black holes. Launched in December 2021, IXPE is an international collaboration between NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is part of the NASA Small Explorers (SMEX) program, which develops low-cost spacecraft to explore heliophysics and astrophysics.

The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, launched in November 2004, is a gamma-ray burst observatory that also monitors X-ray afterglow and ultraviolet/visible light at the burst site. The mission was developed through a joint partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and an international consortium including the United States, United Kingdom, and Italy. Penn State is operating this mission as part of NASA’s Medium Explorer Program (MIDEX).

Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST) is another of his gamma-ray focusing space observation satellites launched into low Earth orbit in June 2008 and is used for astronomical gamma-ray observations. In addition to NASA, the US Department of Energy and government agencies from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Sweden are participating in the mission.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), launched on an Ariane 5 rocket in December 2021, operates in a halo orbit around the L2 Sun-Earth point. JWST’s greater sensitivity in the infrared spectrum and higher image resolution allow it to observe objects that are further away, fainter, or older than its predecessors, such as Hubble.

Earth Science Program Missions (1965 – Present)

For more information: NASA Earth Science

NASA Earth Science is a suite of ground- and space-based acquisition systems to better understand the Earth system and its response to the natural environment. It is a large comprehensive program that includes: Human-made systems caused change. Over the decades, numerous systems have been developed and deployed to improve predictions of weather, climate, and other changes in the natural environment. Currently operational spacecraft programs include Aqua, [91] Aura, [92] Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE FO), and Ice, Cloud, and Land Advanced Satellite 2 (ICESat -2).

In addition to systems already in orbit, NASA is developing a new set of Earth observation systems to study, evaluate, and generate real-time responses to climate change, natural disasters, wildfires, and agricultural processes. The GOES-T satellite (named GOES-18 after launch) joined the US geostationary weather monitoring satellite constellation in March 2022.

NASA also maintains the Earth Science Data System (ESDS) program, which monitors the lifecycle of NASA’s Earth science data, from collection to processing and distribution. The primary goal of ESDS is to maximize the scientific benefits of NASA missions and experiments to researchers, applied scientists, policy makers, and society at large. The Earth Science Program is managed by the Earth Science Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

Space Operations Architecture

NASA invests in a variety of ground- and space-based infrastructure to support science and exploration missions. The agency maintains access to suborbital and orbital space launch capabilities and maintains ground station solutions that support evolving spacecraft and remote systems.

Deep Space Network (1963-present)

More information: NASA Deep Space Network

NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) serves as the primary ground station solution for NASA’s interplanetary spacecraft and some Earth-orbiting missions. The system uses ground station complexes near Barstow, California, USA, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia. Placing these ground stations at a distance of approximately 120 degrees around the Earth allows communication with spacecraft throughout the solar system, even as the Earth rotates on its axis every day. The system is controlled from JPL’s 24/7 operations center in Pasadena, California, and manages routine communications links with up to 40 spacecraft. The system is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

Near Space Network (1983-Present)

For More Information: Near Earth Network and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System

Near Space Network (NSN) provides telemetry, command, ground-based tracking, data and communications services to a variety of customers. Offers. Satellites are in low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary orbit (GEO), high elliptical orbit (HEO), and lunar orbit. NSN gathers ground station and antenna resources from the low-lying network and Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System “TDRS”. The company operates in geostationary orbit and provides continuous real-time coverage of launch vehicles and its NASA missions in low Earth orbit.

NSN consists of 19 ground stations around the world operated by the US government and contractors including Kongsberg Satellite Services (KSAT), Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), and the South African National Space Agency (SANSA). [102] The ground network averages 120 to 150 spacecraft contacts per day, and the TDRS interacts with the system almost continuously as needed. The system is managed and operated by the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Sounding rocket program (1959-present)

More information: NASA Sounding Rocket Program

The NASA Sounding Rocket Program (NSRP) is located at the Wallops Flight Facility and provides launch capabilities, payload development and integration, and field operational support to accomplish suborbital missions. The program has been in operation since 1959 and is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center through a joint team of US government and contractors.[105] The NSRP team conducts approximately 20 missions a year from both Wallops and other launch sites around the world, allowing scientists to collect data. This program supports the Science Mission Directorate’s strategic vision to collect critical scientific data for Earth science, heliophysics, and astrophysics programs.

In June 2022, NASA conducted its first rocket launch from a commercial spaceport outside the United States. Black Brant IX launched from Australia’s Arnhem Space Center.

Launch Services Program (1990-Present)

For more information: NASA Launch Services Program


The NASA Launch Services Program (LSP) procures launch services for NASA’s unmanned missions and oversees launch integration and launch preparation activities. I will be in charge of Includes additional information quality and mission assurance to meet program objectives. Since 1990, NASA has purchased launch vehicle consumable services directly from commercial providers whenever possible for scientific and applied missions. Disposable launch vehicles capable of handling all types of orbital inclinations and altitudes are ideal vehicles for launching Earth orbits and interplanetary missions. LSP operates from the Kennedy Space Center and reports to NASA’s Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD).

Aeronautical Research

For more information: NASA Research and Aeronautical Research Mission Directorate

Aeronautical Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) is one of five mission directorates within NASA, the other four being the Exploration Systems Development Mission Directorate; Space Operations Mission Directorate, Science Mission Directorate and Space Technology Mission Directorate. ARMD is responsible for NASA’s aeronautical research that benefits the commercial, military, and general aviation sectors. ARMD conducts aviation research at its four NASA facilities: Ames Research Center and Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, Glenn Research Center in Ohio, and Langley Research Center in Virginia.

NASA X-57 Maxwell Aircraft (2016–present)

More information: NASA X-57 Maxwell

NASA requires a highly efficient all-electric aircraft. Of The main objective of this program is to develop and deliver all-electrification technology solutions that can also obtain regulatory airworthiness certification. The program involves developing or modifying the system in several stages to gradually improve its performance and usability. The initial configuration of the aircraft is currently completing ground testing in preparation for its first flight. The X-57 is scheduled to fly in mid-2022, before the end of the year. The development team includes employees from NASA Armstrong, Glenn, and Langley Centers, as well as numerous industrial partners in the United States and Italy.

Next Generation Air Transportation System (2007–Present)

More information: Next Generation Air Transportation System

NASA is working with the Federal Aviation Administration and industry representatives to develop the US National Airspace System (NAS). We are working on modernization. This effort began in 2007 with the goal of delivering key modernization components by 2025. Modernization efforts aim to improve the safety, efficiency, capacity, accessibility, flexibility, predictability, and resiliency of NAS while reducing the environmental impact of aviation. NASA Ames’ Aeronautical Systems Division operates the joint NASA/FAA North Texas Research Station. The station supports all stages of NextGen research, from concept development to field evaluation of prototype systems. The facility already has advanced NextGen concepts and technology in the field through technology transfer to the FAA. NASA’s contributions also include the development of advanced automation concepts and tools that provide air traffic controllers, pilots, and other airspace users with more accurate, real-time information about the nation’s traffic flows, weather, and flight paths. Ames’ advanced airspace modeling and simulation tools are widely used to model US air traffic flows and evaluate new concepts in airspace design, traffic flow management, and optimization.

Technology Research

For technologies funded or supported by NASA, see NASA Spinoff Technologies.

Nuclear Energy and Space Propulsion (In Progress)

NASA has introduced technologies such as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermal Generator (MMRTG), a type of radioisotope heat generator used to propel spacecraft. A lack of the necessary plutonium-238 has limited space missions since the beginning of the 2000s. An example of a spacecraft that was not developed due to a lack of this material is New Horizons 2.

In July 2021, NASA announced a contract award to develop a thermal propulsion reactor. The three contractors will spend 12 months developing individual designs for subsequent evaluation by NASA and the US Department of Energy. NASA’s nuclear space technology portfolio is led and funded by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate.

In January 2023, NASA announced a partnership with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency for the Demonstration Rocket for Agile SYS Lunar Operations (DRACO) program. A space demonstration of the NTR engine, a fundamental feature of NASA’s Mars mission. In July 2023, NASA and DARPA jointly announced $499 million in funding to Lockheed Martin to develop and manufacture an experimental NTR rocket to launch in 2027.

Other efforts

Free space optics. NASA is hiring a third party to study the possibility of using Free Space Optics (FSO) to communicate with ground-based optical (laser) stations (OGS), the so-called Laser-Com-RF network for satellite communications. I hired him.

Obtain water from the soil of the month. On July 29, 2020, NASA asked American universities to propose new technologies to extract water from lunar soil and develop energy systems. This idea could help space agencies carry out sustainable lunar exploration.

Human Spaceflight Research (2005–Present)

NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) is designed to study the effects of space on human health and to provide countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. Mass. The medical benefits of space exploration are limited to some extent by travel to low Earth orbit and the moon. The journey to Mars is quite long and takes us deeper into space, which could pose serious medical problems. These include decreased bone density, radiation exposure, vision problems, circadian rhythm disruption, heart remodeling, and changes in the immune system. To study and diagnose these adverse effects, HRP was tasked with identifying or developing small, low-mass, low-capacity, low-power portable equipment to monitor the health status of astronauts. To achieve this goal, on May 13, 2022, NASA and SpaceX Crew-4 astronauts will use the universal biomedical analyzer rHEALTH ONE to identify and identify biomarkers, cells, microorganisms, and proteins in the spaceflight environment. You passed the analytical ability test.

Planetary Defense (2016 – Present)

More information: Planetary Defense Coordination Office and Near-Earth Objects

NASA uses the Planetary Defense Coordination Office to catalog and track potentially hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs), including: In 2016, we established the Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO). Investigate asteroids and comets and develop possible responses and defenses against these threats. PDCO’s mission is to provide governments and the public with timely and accurate information regarding the proximity and likely effects of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs). This office operates within the Planetary Sciences Division of the Science Mission Directorate.

PDCO reinforced previous cooperative efforts between the United States, the European Union, and other countries that have been searching the skies for NEOs since 1998 under an effort called SpaceGuard.

Near-earth object detection (1998-present)

Since the 1990s, NASA has conducted numerous NEO detection programs from observatories on Earth, greatly increasing the number of objects discovered. Many asteroids are very faint, and those close to the Sun are much more difficult to see with ground-based telescopes that face away from the Sun for nighttime observations. A NEO in Earth’s orbit also reflects only some light, so it may not be a “full moon” if it is located behind the Earth and is completely illuminated by the Sun.

In 1998, the US Congress required NASA to discover by 2008 90% of near-Earth asteroids larger than 1 km (0.62 miles) in diameter (threatening global devastation). This first order was fulfilled in 2011. In 2005, USA Spaceguard’s original mandate was expanded by the George E. Brown Jr. Near-Earth Object Survey Act, which required NASA to detect 90% of NEOs larger than 140 m (460 ft) in diameter in 2020. I did. The 20 meter high Chelyabinsk meteorite that hit Russia in 2013). As of January 2020, it is estimated that less than half of them have been discovered, but an object of this size only hits Earth about once every 2,000 years.

In January 2020, NASA officials estimated that it would take 30 years to find all objects that meet the 140 m (460 ft) size criterion, more than double the 2005 mandate. In June 2021, NASA approved the development of the NEO Surveyor spacecraft, reducing the time it was scheduled to fulfill its mission to 10 years.

Participation in Current Robotic Missions

NASA has integrated planetary defense objectives into several ongoing missions.

In 1999, NASA visited 433 Eros with the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft, which entered orbit in 2000, and used various instruments of the time to accurately image the asteroid. NEAR Shoemaker was the first space probe to successfully orbit and land on an asteroid. In doing so, we have deepened our understanding of these objects and demonstrated the ability to study them in more detail.

OSIRIS-REx used a series of instruments to transmit radio tracking signals and capture optical images of the asteroid during its study. This helps NASA scientists determine its exact location within the solar system and its precise orbit. Because Bennu is likely to repeatedly approach the Earth-Moon system over the next 100 to 200 years, the precision provided by OSIRIS-REx will allow scientists to predict future gravitational interactions and interactions between Bennu and our planet. , allowing us to better study the resulting changes in Bennu. Predict future flight paths. The

The WISE/NEOWISE mission was launched in 2009 by NASA JPL as an astronomical space telescope using infrared wavelengths. In 2013, NASA reused it for the NEOWISE mission to discover potentially dangerous near-Earth asteroids and comets. That mission has been extended until 2023.

NASA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHAPL) jointly developed the first dedicated planetary defense satellite, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), to test potential planetary defense concepts. DART was launched in November 2021.

SpaceX Falcon 9 from California in orbit with the intention of impacting the asteroid Dimorphos. Scientists wanted to find out whether the impact could change the asteroid’s further orbit. A concept that can be applied to future planetary defense. On September 26, 2022, DART arrived at its destination. In the weeks following the impact, NASA declared DART a success, confirming that Dimorphos’ orbital period around Didymos had been shortened by approximately 32 minutes, exceeding the preset success threshold of 73 seconds. The

NEO Surveyor, formerly known as the Near Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) mission, is a space-based infrared telescope currently in development to survey the solar system for potentially hazardous asteroids. The space probe is scheduled to launch in 2026.

Researching Unidentified Aeronautical Phenomena (2022–Present)

In June 2022, NASA Science Mission Directorate Administrator Thomas Zurbuchen confirmed the launch of his independent UAP research team at NASA. Zurbuchen, speaking at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, said the space agency will bring a scientific perspective to efforts already underway by the Pentagon and intelligence agencies to understand dozens of such sightings. He said he was deaf. He said space agencies should not shy away from “high-risk, high-impact” research, even in controversial areas.


NASA Advisory Board

Following the Apollo 1 disaster in 1967, in which three astronauts died, Congress required NASA to provide NASA management guidance on atmospheric safety issues and hazards. Directed the establishment of an Aerospace Safety Advisory Committee (ASAP) to advise the public. And the space program. After the Shuttle Columbia disaster, Congress required NASA administrators and Congress to submit an annual report as soon as possible. By 1971, NASA also established the Space Program Advisory Board and the Research and Technology Advisory Board to provide advisory board support to the Administrator. In 1977 the latter two were combined to form the NASA Advisory Committee (NAC). The 2014 NASA Authorization Act reaffirms the importance of doing it as soon as possible.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

For more information, visit: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


NASA and NOAA have collaborated on the development, delivery, and operation of polar and geostationary weather satellites for decades. This relationship typically involves developing NASA’s space systems, launch solutions, and satellite ground control technology, operating NOAA’s systems, and providing weather forecasting products to our users. Multiple generations of NOAA polar orbiting platforms have been deployed to provide detailed low-altitude weather imagery. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) provide near real-time coverage of the Western Hemisphere, enabling accurate and timely understanding of evolving weather phenomena.

US Space Force

For more information: US Space Force

The US Space Force (USSF) is the space arm of the US military and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States. The US government is responsible for civilian space travel. NASA and the Space Force’s predecessor, the Air Force, have had a long-standing partnership, with the Space Force supporting NASA’s launches from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, and Vandenberg Space Force Station, including It also includes range support and mission rescue operations. NASA and the Space Force also collaborate on issues such as protecting Earth from asteroids.[156] Space Force members may also include NASA astronauts, with SpaceX Crew-1 commander Col. Michael S. Hopkins commissioned into the Space Force from the International Space Station on December 18, 2020. do. In September 2020, the Space Force and NASA signed a memorandum of understanding formally recognizing the division of roles between the two agencies. This new memorandum of understanding replaces a similar document signed in 2006 between NASA and the Air Force Space Command.

US Geological Survey

For more information: US Geological Survey and Landsat 9

The Landsat program is the longest-running satellite imagery collection effort on Earth. This is a joint NASA/USGS program. On July 23, 1972, the Earth Resources Technology Satellite was launched. It was eventually renamed Landsat 1 in 1975. Landsat 9, the latest satellite in the series, was launched on September 27, 2021. The

Landsat satellite’s instruments captured millions of images. Images archived at his Landsat receiving stations in the United States and around the world are a unique resource for research on global change and applications in agriculture, cartography, geology, forestry, regional planning, monitoring, and education. and can be accessed via the United States. state. Geological Survey (USGS) EarthExplorer website. Cooperation between NASA and the USGS includes the development and deployment of satellite space systems by NASA. Solution: Satellites are placed in orbit, and the USGS operates the system in orbit. As of October 2022, nine satellites have been built, eight of which are successfully operating in orbit.

European Space Agency (ESA)

For more information: European Space Agency

NASA collaborates with the European Space Agency on a variety of scientific and exploration needs. From participating in the Space Shuttle (Space Lab)

ESA and NASA have taken on key roles in the Artemis program (Orion Service Module) to support the agencies’ science and exploration missions. ESA spacecraft have NASA payloads, and NASA spacecraft have ESA payloads. These institutions have developed joint missions in areas such as solar physics (such as solar-orbiting satellites) and astronomy (Hubble Space Telescope, James Webb Space Telescope). As part of the Artemis Gateway partnership, ESA will contribute to improvements to the housing and refueling module, as well as lunar surface communications to the Gateway. NASA and ESA have agreed to collaborate on a variety of missions, including the Sentinel 6 series spacecraft, and continue to advance cooperation in the areas of Earth science, including climate change.

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

For more information: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborate on numerous space projects. JAXA participates directly in the Artemis program, including the Lunar Gateway Initiative. JAXA’s planned contributions to the Gateway include I-Hab’s environmental control and life support systems, battery, thermal control and imaging components, which will be assembled into modules by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to launch. It is planned to be integrated. These features are critical to the continued operation of the gateway during both manned and unattended periods.

JAXA and NASA have collaborated on numerous satellite programs, particularly in the field of Earth science. NASA contributes to its JAXA satellites and vice versa. Japanese instruments are aboard NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites, and NASA sensors have also been used in previous Japanese Earth observation missions. The NASA-JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission began in 2014 and includes both NASA- and JAXA-provided sensors on its NASA satellite, which is launched on a JAXA rocket. This mission will allow scientists and weather forecasters to make frequent and accurate measurements of precipitation around the world.


For more information: Roscosmos

NASA and Roscosmos have been collaborating on the development and operations of the International Space Station since September 1993. Both agencies used launch systems from both countries to deliver station elements into orbit. Astronauts and cosmonauts work together to maintain various elements of the station. After the retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011, the two countries have agreed to increase the number of launch systems to the station due to Russia’s unique role as NASA’s COTS and sole provider of crew and cargo delivery prior to the start of crew flights. Access is allowed. In July 2022, NASA and Roscosmos signed a Space Station Flight Sharing Agreement, allowing crews from both countries to fly on systems provided by the other country. Given the current geopolitical situation at the end of 2022, it is unlikely that this cooperation will expand to other programs such as Artemis or lunar exploration.

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

More information: ISRO

In September 2014, NASA and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) collaborated to launch a joint radar mission, NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR). We have entered into a partnership with Mission. This mission is scheduled to begin in 2024. NASA will provide an L-band synthetic aperture radar, high-speed scientific data communications subsystem, GPS receiver, solid-state recorder, and payload data subsystem for this mission. ISRO provides spacecraft buses, S-band radars, launch vehicles, and related launch services.

Artemis Accords

Further information: Artemis Accords

The Artemis Accords were established to define a framework for cooperation in the peaceful exploration and exploitation of the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets. The agreement was drafted by NASA and the US Department of State and will be implemented as a series of bilateral agreements between the United States and participating countries. As of September 2022, 21 countries have signed the agreement. These are Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Ukraine, and the United Arab Emirates. , Britain and America.

National Space Administration of China

More information: Wolf Amendment and National Space Administration of China

The Wolf Amendment was enacted by the US Congress in 2011 and prevents NASA from engaging in direct bilateral cooperation with the Chinese government or Chinese-related agencies. I am. Such as what the China National Space Administration allows without the express permission of Congress or the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Since then, this law has been updated annually and included in the annual budget bill.



The agency’s administrative offices are located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC and demonstrate comprehensive leadership and leadership. Except in exceptional circumstances, NASA employees must be US citizens.[185] The NASA Administrator is appointed by the President of the United States after confirmation by the US Senate, and serves as a senior space science advisor at the request of the President. The current administrator is Bill Nelson, who was appointed by President Joe Biden effective May 3, 2021.

Strategic Plan

NASA is working on its four strategic goals for fiscal year 2022.

  • Expanding human knowledge through new scientific discoveries
  • Extending human presence to the Moon and even Mars for sustainable long-term exploration, exploitation, and exploitation
  • Addressing national challenges Accelerating Economic Growth and Promoting Innovation
  • Improving Capabilities and Operations Catalyzing Current and Future Mission Success.


More information: NASA Budget

NASA budget requests are prepared by NASA and approved by the Administration before being submitted to the US Congress. The approved budget is the budget that is included in the budget bill approved by both houses of Congress and signed into law by the President of the United States. NASA’s 4,444 budget requests and approved budgets for the current fiscal year are listed below.


NASA’s funding and priorities are developed through six mission branches.

Center-wide activities, such as the Chief Engineer, Security and Mission Assurance Organization, are coordinated with headquarters functions. MSD’s proposed budget includes funding for these key functions. The administration operates 10 major field centers, several of which manage additional subsidiary facilities across the country. Each Center is led by a Center Director (dates below effective September 1, 2022).


Environmental impact

Exhaust gases produced by rocket propulsion systems both in the Earth’s atmosphere and in space can have a negative impact on the global environment. Some polymer rocket fuels, such as hydrazine, are highly toxic before combustion, but break down into less toxic compounds after combustion. Rockets that use hydrocarbon fuels such as kerosene emit carbon dioxide and soot in their exhaust. Carbon dioxide emissions are small compared to emissions from other sources. In 2014, the United States used an average of 803 million US gallons (3 million cubic meters) of liquid propellant per day, while the Falcon 9 rocket’s first stage used approximately 25,000 US gallons per launch. (95 cubic meters) of kerosene fuel was used. Even if Falcon 9 were launched every day, it would account for only 0.006% of the liquid fuel consumption (and carbon dioxide emissions) for that day. Furthermore, the exhaust gas from his LOx and LH2 powered engines such as SSME is almost entirely composed of water vapor. NASA addressed environmental issues with its Constellation mission, which was canceled in 2011 under the National Environmental Policy Act. In contrast, ion engines use harmless noble gases such as xenon for propulsion.

An example of NASA’s environmental efforts is the NASA Sustainability Base. Additionally, the Exploration Sciences Building was awarded a LEED Gold rating in 2010. On May 8, 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency named NASA the first federal agency to use landfill gas directly to generate energy at one of its facilities, the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. recognized as.

In 2018, NASA launched its CAUTION (Coatings for Ultra-High Temperature Detectors ION) project with companies such as Sensor Coating Systems, Pratt & Whitney, Monitor Coatings, and UTRC. This project aims to extend the temperature range of thermal history coatings to over 1,500°C (2,730°F). The ultimate goal of this project is not only to improve the safety of jet engines, but also to increase their efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions.

Climate Change

NASA also researches and publishes on the topic of climate change. His comments are consistent with the global scientific consensus that the Earth’s climate is warming. Bob Walker, who advised President Donald Trump on space issues, has argued that NASA should focus on space exploration and transfer its climate research to other agencies, such as NOAA. Former NASA atmospheric scientist J. Marshall Shepard responded that earth science research was incorporated into NASA’s mission at the inception of the National Aeronautics and Space Act in 1958.[228] NASA won the 2020 Webby People’s Voice Award in the Green category for its website.

STEM Initiative

More information: Educational Launch of STEM

Nanosatellite (ELaNa). Since 2011, NASA’s ELaNa program collaborates with university teams to test new technologies and off-the-shelf solutions by providing CubeSat launch capabilities developed using NASA-procured launch capabilities. It has provided opportunities. For example, two of his NASA-backed CubeSats were launched on a Virgin Orbit LauncherOne rocket in June 2022 as the ELaNa 39 mission. There are

cubes in the universe. NASA launched an annual contest in 2014 called “Cubes in Space.” The event, co-hosted by NASA and global education company I Doodle Learning, challenges students ages 11 to 18 to design and build science experiments that will be launched into space on NASA rockets and balloons. It is intended for teaching purposes. On June 21, 2017, the world’s smallest satellite “KalamSAT” was launched.

Use of the Metric System

US law requires the use of the International System of Units in all US government programs “unless practical.”

In 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the moon, using a mix of standard US and metric units. In the 1980s, NASA began switching to the metric system, but continued to use both systems in the 1990s. On September 23, 1999, a mix-up occurred regarding NASA usage. The Mars climate probe was lost due to the deployment of SI units by Lockheed Martin Space and the deployment of US units.

In August 2007, NASA announced that all future lunar missions and exploration would be conducted using SI systems only. This was done to improve cooperation with space agencies of other countries that already use the metric system. Since 2007, NASA has been working primarily with SI units, although some projects still use US units, and some projects, including the International Space Station, have two units. are used in combination.

Media Presence


More Information: NASA TV

The NASA Television Network has a nearly 40-year history, ranging from live broadcasts of manned missions to major milestones in robotic spacecraft operations, such as the landing of a rover on Mars. We broadcast a wide range of content, including video coverage of. From its release in domestic and international markets. This channel is provided by NASA and broadcast via satellite and the Internet. The system initially began collecting archival footage of important space events for NASA managers and engineers and expanded as public interest grew. The message Apollo 8 sent on Christmas Eve while orbiting the moon was received by more than a billion people. NASA’s video broadcast of the Apollo 11 moon landing won Primetime’s Emmy Award to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the moon landing. This channel is a product of the US government and is widely available on many television and internet platforms.


NASAcast is the official audio and video podcast from the NASA website. Created in late 2005, this podcast service features the latest audio and video from his NASA website, including NASA TV’s “This Week at NASA” and his NASA-produced educational materials. Additional NASA podcasts, such as Science@NASA, will also be featured, allowing subscribers to dive into content by topic.


NASA EDGE is a video podcast that explores various NASA missions, technologies, and projects. This program was released by NASA on March 18, 2007, and as of August 2020, 200 vodcasts have been produced. This is a public Vodcast sponsored by NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, based at the Exploration and Space Operations Directorate at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The NASA EDGE team shares current projects and technologies at its NASA facilities across the United States through in-person interviews, on-site broadcasts, computer animation, and its one-on-one interviews with leading NASA scientists and engineers. Investigate from an insider.

This program examines NASA’s contributions to society and the progress of current projects in materials and space exploration. The NASA EDGE podcast is available for download from the NASA website and iTunes.

In its first year of production, the show was downloaded more than 450,000 times. As of February 2010, the average download rate exceeded 420,000 downloads per month, and in December 2009 and January 2010 it exceeded 1 million downloads.

NASA and NASA EDGE have also developed interactive programs to complement the podcast. The Lunar Electric Rover app allows users to drive a simulated Lunar Electric Rover between destinations and provide vehicle information and images. The NASA EDGE widget provides a graphical user interface for accessing NASA EDGE podcasts, image galleries, the program’s Twitter feed, and live NASA news feeds.

Today’s Astronomical Photo

This section is an excerpt from Today’s Astronomical Photo.

Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) is a NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU) website. “Each day, a different image or photo of our universe is displayed, along with a brief explanation by a professional astronomer.” The photos do not necessarily correspond to celestial events on the exact day shown. , images are sometimes repeated. These are often related to the latest events in astronomy and space exploration. The text contains several hyperlinks to additional images and websites where you can obtain more information. Images can be either photographs in the visible spectrum, images taken at non-visible wavelengths and displayed in false color, video recordings, animations, artistic imagination, or microscopic images related to space or cosmology. Images prior to that

are stored in his APOD archive, with the first image appearing on June 16, 1995. This effort was supported by NASA, the National Science Foundation, and MTU. Unlike many of his other NASA image galleries, APOD images are often subject to copyright, as the images may be created by people or organizations other than NASA.


Detailed article: NASA +

In July 2023, NASA announced a new streaming service called his NASA +. The service launched on November 8, 2023 and offers live broadcasts of product launches, documentaries, and original programming.  There will be no advertising or subscription fees, NASA said.  It will be part of the NASA app on iOS, Android, Amazon Fire TV, Roku, and Apple TV, as well as available on its web on desktop and mobile devices.